The development trend of world fine chemical industry

China has made considerable progress in fine chemicals,The development trend of world fine chemical industry Articles while still a gap compared with developed countries, the overall level and per capita consumption level is still far behind developed countries.

Petrochemical and fine chemical is an important part of the chemical industry is based on sales performance chemicals. Chronological order by forming industry, fine chemical industry is divided into two parts, both traditional and new areas. Consists mainly of traditional fine chemicals: dyes, paints and pesticides; new areas of fine chemicals, including: food additives, feed additives, electronic chemicals, paper chemicals, water treatment chemicals, plastic additives, leather chemical products, etc., will be new areas of international Specialty Chemicals Fine Chemicals known.Compared with the petrochemical industry, fine chemical has the following characteristics: the production of various sizes, vary widely from 10 million tons / year to only tens of kilograms / year, and many more mass produced; products of high added value, Copper Chromite(CC) usually the product of profit margin of 10% or more, some as high as 30% to 50%; lower total cost of the product is relatively low, but the downstream impact on product quality and performance of the larger; the impact of formulation on the nature of products is very large, formula often results in a slight difference in performance of the great changes; product innovation cycle is short, be based on changes in the downstream product update or improve; closely related to human life, if not fine chemical products, human life would be unimaginable.The rate of fine chemicals has become a measure of a country or region chemical development of the main signs. With economic development and technological advances, the world has entered a mature fine chemicals. The development of fine chemicals faster than the general chemical products, fine chemicals rate continues to increase. Eighties fine chemical rate of 45 developed countries to 55%, 55 ~ 63% of the nineties, twenty-first century will reach 60 to 67%. Although China from the “Plan”, through 20 years of development, the construction of a large number of fine chemicals plant, built a number of fine chemical industry base, or park, fine chemical rate has reached 48%, but there is still great compared with other countries the gap.Fine and specialty chemicals with the country’s economic level and the development of basic petrochemical industry is closely related. Thus the United States, Western Europe and Japan is the world’s fine and specialty chemicals production and consumption of more developed countries and regions. The total turnover of the three global specialty chemicals account for about 77% of turnover.With the base oil and chemical raw materials industry than the fine and specialty chemicals, especially with the size of the economy is closely related to the quality of the economy, so the future of the global fine and specialty chemicals consumption will continue to show healthy development of the situation, especially with the vast number of developing improvement in the level of industrialization in the country, of fine and specialty chemicals demand will increase. The future of the global fine and specialty chemicals trends are as follows: the next five years the global fine and specialty chemicals market will average 3.1% growth rate expected in 2008, 10-Hydroxydecanoic Acid the market will reach $ 450 billion, the development of rapid in the areas of: bulk drugs, enzymes, specialty polymers, nano-materials, separation membranes, specialty coatings, electronic chemicals and catalysts, but pesticides, dyes and textile chemicals show a downward trend.The competition will be intensified science and technology, a worldwide restructuring will be inevitable. The new century, as the world economic slowdown, demand slowed down, fine and specialty chemicals in developing countries more and more into the international market, many well-known fine and specialty chemicals company’s operating performance decline. To consolidate market share, improve economic efficiency, a new round of mergers, alliances, restructuring will revival.For the user, fine and specialty chemicals use small, relatively low value, so as to achieve the effect of use, users are more concerned about the performance of the product, so they tend to choose custom manufacturing. Use varieties of fine and specialty chemicals other features, such as plastic processing needs plasticizers, flame retardants, antioxidants, heat stabilizers products, user-friendly procurement, purchase cost savings, more and more Fine and specialty chemicals manufacturer in sales of own products, while other types of products purchased, so that users need to buy one product for all additives.In the past 10 years, as enterprises engaged in fine chemical production increased dramatically, making the fine chemical products supply and demand imbalance, basically are in oversupply, resulting in fine chemical and contract chemical production has become more competitive. Faced with such a highly competitive market of chemical raw materials, in order to get orders they must have their own unique competitive advantage. This unique competitive advantage depends on the synthesis of a major breakthrough in process development, the cost has dropped significantly. In order to make their production process has major breakthrough not only in the original process development process based on this step or that step to improve the yield of a few percent, or increase solvent recovery. More important objective is to significantly cut the production process of many steps

Motorcycles in the Military

The other day,Motorcycles in the Military Articles I took the chance to watch again that fantastic movie ‘The Great Escape’. As I watched Bud Ekins take the place of Steve McQueen, to jump the wire fence on his Triumph, I began to wonder about the role of the motorcycle during wartime, so I did a little reading and was surprised to find that motorcycles have played a huge part in military history. Being able to go where other vehicles couldn’t, they became the modern day horses, with one great advantage; some bikes, such as the Enfield ‘Flying Flea’ or ‘Airborne’ as it was also known, could be parachuted from an aeroplane along with troops.

Royal Enfield also supplied motorbikes to the British Armed Forces in World War 1, with machine gun-carrying combinations and stretcher-bearing motorcycles being made on demand. The company even won a contract to supply motorbikes to the Russians, and when most able bodied men were at war in Europe, a police force made up of women was issued with 600cc motorcycles.

The Germans weren’t slow in seeing the practicality of using two wheeled transport. BMW motorcycles were to prove invaluable in North Africa during World War 2. Not having a chain that could clog with sand, they were so successful that Harley-Davidson were requested by the US military to copy the machine, which they duly did and produced the Harley-Davidson XA. With the German war machine insatiable for motorcycles, BMW flourished during the war years.

The American Army have been using motorcycles since 1913, with a third of all Harley-Davidson machines being produced for the military in 1917. In the Second World War the company produced 30,000 bikes for the Russians and also built machines for the Canadians. A total of 90,000 motorcycles were produced during the conflict. The Indian Motorcycle Company also produced machines such as the ‘Scout’ and ‘Chief’ during the war years, but weren’t able to replace Harley Davidson as the motorcycle of choice.

In Britain, the First World War provided work for the Triumph factory as production was concentrated on the war effort. More than 30,000 motorcycles, including the ‘Model H Roadster’ were turned over to the military. In World War 2, the Triumph factory was laid to waste by German bombs, along with most of Coventry, so production moved to a site near Meriden, also in the West Midlands area of England. Apart from building some 50,000 motorbikes during the war, Triumph also produced aircraft components.

In 1950, the North Koreans, backed by China, were able to deploy a ‘Motorcycle Reconnaissance’ unit equipped with home produced bikes. Vietnam also saw the use of the military motorcycle, with ‘Special Forces’ employing motorbikes during that ill-fated conflict. In 1988, Vietnam Veterans took to the streets of Washington D.C. to create a two-wheeled convoy known as ‘Rolling Thunder’, in order to raise awareness of the suffering of the soldiers who did not return from the war. This has developed into an annual pilgrimage to the ‘Vietnam Veterans Memorial’.

‘Operation Desert Storm’ in 1991 again saw the deployment of motorcycles, and more recently, the manoeuvrability of two-wheeled transport proved invaluable in Afghanistan and Iraq. When the road ends, the motorcycle keeps on going. When the road doesn’t end, the speed of a motorcycle is unchallenged. Accessibility and versatility have been key words associated with the role of military motorcycles since the outset.

Now back to Steve McQueen, who was frowned upon by his bosses at the studio for spilling the beans about his stunt double, during ‘The Johnny Carson Show’. When Johnny congratulated Steve on the motorcycle jump, Steve didn’t hesitate in putting the record straight. It wasn’t that Steve McQueen couldn’t ride a bike, quite the contrary. In the scenes before the jump, he rode his own bike as Virgil Hilts, but the German riders couldn’t keep pace with him, so wearing a German uniform, he took the role of a pursuing German, and through the magic of film editing, chased himself. So the next time you get the chance to see ‘The Great Escape’, look out for Steve McQueen chasing Steve McQueen. The motorcycle chase was actually McQueen’s idea. The original script had Virgil Hilts attempting to escape by train, but when McQueen said to his director ‘Hey John, I’ve got an idea that will put more juice into this’, a small piece of movie and motorcycle history was born.